Compendium of U.S. Copyright Practices, 3rd Edition

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2204.1 Notice for Works Fixed in Copies

2204.1 Notice for Works Fixed in Copies

A notice for a work published before March 1, 1989 that has been fixed in copies should include the following elements:

• The symbol ¬© or the word “Copyright” or the abbreviation “Copr.”;

• The year of first publication for the work; and

• The name of the copyright owner, or an abbreviation by which the name can be recognized, or a generally known alternative designation of the owner.

17 U.S.C. § 401 (B). Each of these terms are discussed in Sections 2204.4 and 2205 below. The elements of the notice should appear as a single continuous statement containing the copyright symbol or the word “Copyright” or the abbreviation “Copr.,” followed by the year of first publication, followed by the name of the copyright owner.


• ¬© 1978 John Doe

• Copyright 1980 John Doe

• Copr. 1982 John Doe

In the case of a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work, the year of publication may be omitted if the work is reproduced on greeting cards, postcards, stationery, jewelry, dolls, toys, or any useful article.

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