Copyright Compendium

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Chapter 2200
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Chapter 2400

2004.2 Bilateral Copyright Treaties and Presidential Proclamations

2004.2 Bilateral Copyright Treaties and Presidential Proclamations


The United States has entered into bilateral treaties with some foreign countries. These treaties often are in addition to multilateral treaties and try to provide a further layer of protection. For a list of specific U.S. bilateral treaties, see International Copyright Relations of the United States (Circular 38a).


Additionally, there have been numerous Presidential proclamations throughout the years specifying countries to which the United States has extended copyright law protection. Presidential proclamations were especially common prior to the United States’s adherence to the Berne Convention, which allowed the United States to provide protection to foreign works more easily. These proclamations are included as part of the “bilateral” agreements listed in Circular 38 (A).